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Major highlights of Yojana and Kurushetra magazine
In this article, we have presented major highlights of Yojana and Kurushetra magazines for May 2019.
Energy sector in India
PM Modi called for supportive relationship between producers and customers and encouraged optimal use of the IEF platform. He further said that the country’s refineries are on track to meet targets, India’s consumption will grow 4.5% and efforts of distorted oil pricing will reduce with increase in consumer markets.
Four energy pillars of India:
- Energy Access
- Energy Efficiency
- Energy Sustainability
- Energy Security
India needs to establish an integrated planning process, correct imbalances in energy value chain, redesign government energy institutions, introduce “city energy ombudsman”, invest in supportive fields, improve solar energy usage and study on “clean energy” system.
How to Boost the Energy Drive?
To support clean, renewable and efficient energy, India must shift from fossil dependants to renewable. It can be done in the following criteria:
- Integrate energy and environment policy
- Decarbonisation and demand management and efficiency in energy policy
- Energy diplomacy
- Intensify exploration and enhance recovery
- Increase competition
- Natural Gas
Steps to Achieve Solar Potential
India planned for a target of 40 gigawatts by 2022 but only 2158 megawatts has been installed. India mostly has large scale and commercial solar power than for rural households. The main reason for this is:
- Lacklustre growth
- Little consumer awareness
- Lack of innovative government policies
- Bureaucratic concerns
- Limited support from discoms
The Way Forward:
- Achieving significant capacity addition
- Raising consumer awareness
- Processing net metering applications and subsidiaries
- Loans need to be available meaning retail bank branches need to be set up
Steps to take Indian Solar Power Industry to Next Level
Launching of International Solar Alliance, setting up solar parks and introducing schemes like KUSUM and SRISTI have brought the solar project forward.
Technology: Advancements like floating solars and BIPV
Policy Push: Move towards healthier tariffs. Government must accentuate rate of solar power generation
Discom Health: Discoms should be strengthened.
Financial Reforms: Assists renewable energy sector
Enabling Ease of Doing Business: Government reforms have created a conductive environment for businesses. Targets need collaborative effort from all business partners. Government must provide policy support to synchronise growth.
Solar Energy: To catalyse India’s agricultural energy transition
The much ignored case: Irrigation happens late at night due to erratic power supply for farmers. This leads to increased water usage resulting in energy wastage.
Agriculture alone eats up 18% of the electricity produced but its contribution to GDP is a little over 5%. Mismanagement of power supply is the main reason.
Providing energy in a more sustainable manner by the following ways:
- Ensure farmers are provided with uninterrupted power supply in daytime
- Prevent rising electricity demand from the sector
Solar agri-feeders installed by discoms to transmit energy to farms
Advantages of this step include:
- Reduction of agricultural subsidy
- Offers scalability
- Eliminates structural infrastructure costs
- Lower agricultural demands from discoms
- Smart metering, renewable proliferation, energy efficient pumps and nationwide energy access
Energy Efficiency is Key for Sustainable Development
Government wants to reduce emission intensity of GDP from 33-35%. Energy is supposed to be increased in the following sectors:
- Industrial Sector
- Real Estate Sector
- Consumer Appliances
Biogas – A Story Untold
India is heavily dependent on imports for energy. Compressed Biogas can boost affordability and availability of transport fuels and farmers get additional revenue called Sustainable Alternative towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT). CBG has the potential to replace CNG in the future and its uses are as follows:
- Responsible waste, pollution and carbon emissions
- Additional revenue
- Boost in economy
- Supporting national commitments
- Reduction in imports
- Buffer against fluctuations
Biogas: Best cooking energy option
Biogas and PNG are the best choices for cooking. LPG and Kerosene falls in the next category but firewood and pellets are most polluting.
- Cooking fuels contribute to air pollution due to the gases they emit.
- Household air pollution causes diseases.
- Soot is the major cause of pneumonia and subsequent deaths in children
- Houses with limited ventilation increases indoor air pollution
Initiatives Taken: National level programmes for awareness of clean fuels.
National Project on Biogas Development (NPBD)
It was launched in 1981-82. Though it was started to create a socio-economic impact, due to malpractices and corruption, the project had to be shut down.
What can work?
- Adopting the service based enterprise model
- Implementation in various states
- Promoting PNG and making LPG only a choice
- Enabling a consumer to freely make a choice
Benefits must be directly transferred to consumers to avoid leakages.
Gobar Dhan Scheme: Galvanising Organic Bio-Agro Resources-Dhan
Why: With large cattle populations, India has the potential to make villages clean and generate energy and wealth from cattle waste.
- New biogas plants with upgraded technology
- Regular power supply
- Cleaner villages
- Alternate source of income
- Income and employment generation
- Improved fertility of soils
- Prevent diseases
- Women involvement in development of villages
- Reduction of carbon footprint
- Maintaining regular supply becomes cumbersome
- Technology must be up-to-date
- Fodder production must be increased
- Cattle and machines must be maintained simultaneously
Incentivize Behavioral Change: Cattle must be given primary importance.
To generate waste, all the sectors need to be involved:
- Private sector and local entrepreneur investments will be required
- Panchayats and communities must lend a hand to maintain waste
- Sanitation must be provided by sanitation provides.
Geo-Thermal and Ocean Energy Technologies
Ocean Energy: At the end of 2016, around 536 MW energy is in process.
World Scenario: Leaning countries in ocean energy technology are UK, USA, Sweden, Canada, France and South Korea.
Indian Scenario: Theoretical potential for tidal energy is 12500 MW. Theoretical potential for wave energy is 41000 MW.
Tidal Energy – Captured in estuaries
Wave Energy – Movement of a device floating in the ocean
Current Energy – Closed cycle and open cycle technologies to extract current via Gulf Stream
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion – Closed cycle and open cycle OTEC technology
Geothermal Energy: Geothermal is renewable, clean energy to provide for all types of uses in the household.
World Scenario: Total Installed Capacity for Geothermal Power is around 13.5 GW.
- 300 geothermal springs are present in India
- Some sites in India are in Jammu and Kashmir, Gujarat, Chattisgarh, Telangana and Maharashtra
Technology – Dry steam plants, flash steam plants and binary cycle plants
Driving a Green Transition for Environment
Some steps for going green are:
- Going electric for environment
- Adopting electric vehicles
- Jobs and economic impact
- Check air pollution
Coordination between stakeholders is crucial for smooth functioning. China and Netherlands have used EVs to their advantage.
Battery Challenge: Batteries are imported from China. The solution is to encourage EV use and investments must be made in research and development of this area.
Charging EVs take more than just electricity. The government must select or develop appropriate technology for charging.
Organic Farming: It is a method of cultivating crops with the use of natural resources and manure. /it largely avoids synthetic inputs.
Principle of Organic Culture
- The principle of health
- The principle of ecology
- The principle of fairness
- The principle of care
- Protecting long term fertility
- Providing crop nutrients
- Self sufficient in gases
- Weed disease and pest control
- Management of livestock
- Conversation of wildlife
Organic Farming for Sustainable Agriculture Development
Organic farming integrates biodiversity along with providing nutrients to crops. In 2016, Sikkim became the 1st organic state of India.
Organic farming involves various techniques: Crop rotation, green manures, biology pest control and vermi-composting.
Real challenge that India is facing is lack of policy
- Development of regulatory policy
- Removal of quantitative restriction
- Providing subsidies
- Mission Organic Value Chain Development
5key issues faced by organic farmers
- Supply chain is underdeveloped
- Farmers are not allowed to export
- Risk of loss in yield
- Shortage of good quality organic inputs
- Lack of organic policy
Training the farmers:
- Farmers need to be informed about latest technologies
- Incorporating organic tools in farming
- Training must be given on fresh aspects
- Constant monitoring must be done
- Certificate programmes need to be made mandatory
Bio-fertilizers in Indian Farming
Bio-fertilizers are cost effective than the chemicals ones.
- Products of beneficial microorganisms
- Inexpensive and do not contribute to environmental pollution
- Reduces subsidy burden on government
- Not only provides nutrients but also protects plants
- Help in avoiding water stress
- Doses can be reduced after a few years
- Timely supply
- Lack of knowledge
- Persons involved are not qualified enough
Zero Budget Natural Farming: A model for the future
Andhra Pradesh is the 1st state to implement a ZBNF policy.
Natural Farming: Aspects integral for natural farming – Seeds treated with cow dung and urine, rejuvenated seeds and other natural wastes.
- Yields high
- Input costs near zero
- Profits in most areas
- Withstand natural calamities
- Planting more crops in same field
- Reduced use of water and electricity
Organic Farming and Women
- Women must occupy more agriculture research positions
- They need access to training
- They must be given capital funds
- Policies must also focus on gender gaps
- The government has introduced a Paramparik Krishi Vikas Yojhana under which farm lands will be given to tribals.