Maoism or Naxalism is a serious threat to the internal security of India, the majority concentrated in landlocked forest areas. It is also known as “Leftwing Extremism”.
Maoism objectives are:-
- To oppose ‘right’ government ideology
- To support the left ideology, especially of Marxist type, relating to violence.
- To broadcast themselves as custodian of rights of tribals by killing and attacking government officials and politicians.
Since Maoism is in landlocked areas, it is under the law and order of state majority. It is found in Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, UP, Bihar. The central government can deploy central armed police forces to some extent with permission of state along with local police officials.
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Participation of state government is important because:-
- State government officials know ground zero situation better than central officials.
- Many of the times, grassroots leaders play an effective role in solving the issue rather than central politicians.
- We can take the example of Maharastra where the state officials succeeded in converting the mindset of Maoist to join the mainstream.
- It is always better if the talks for peace occurs and it is higher chances it local people are involved in talks. Hence, the state government is more effective than the central government.
- It also makes less militarian in Maoist affected areas. People live with liberty, parallel policing can be done.
Problems in dealing Maoism with state government:-
- It is always problematic when the centre is the right ideology and the state is left ideology. Centre’s orders may not be taken seriously by local leaders.
- Difficult to deploy CRPF or intelligence units.
- Area of Maoism is in the forest, forest exhibits no physical boundaries; that is why when one state works against it, Maoist flee to a neighbouring state. Hence, until central action is taken, it is virtually difficult to tackle Maoism.
- Tribal laws can be modified with mineral explorations by parliament for betterment. It may include reservation criteria, coalmines etc.
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- Though state participation is crucial but ineffective if central action is not being implemented.
- Along with military actions, we need social revolution by Maoist family also. It can be done by social sector initiatives and making level playing field.