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Internal migration in India

Internal migration in India

Internal migration in the movement of individual from one place to another within the boundaries of a nation. It is a prevalent phenomenon in India which contributes around $170 billion per annum to economy or 6% to GDP.

Among internal migration, most of them are rural to urban migration due to the push factors in the rural areas and pull factors in urban areas like opportunities for employment, health care, education, living standards etc.

But this migration brings various challenges for migrant population like: –

  • Housing for all is not possible with this accelerated pace of migration due to which many people have to live in soot filled houses and sometimes in slums.
  • Due to high living cost migrant population is vulnerable to employment in hazardous Industries, child labour and sexual exploitation.
  • Due to fluidity of movement they find it difficult to get access of identity proof such as Aadhaar card, voter’s card.
  • Due to unavailability of identity proofs they are excluded for various Government schemes which are meant for their welfare.
  • Most of them are hired by companies because they are unregistered migrants they are prone to exploitation like bonded labor.


However they are a number of way by which the situation can be improved:-

  • Registration like Inter- state migrant workmen set should be overhauled and implemented in letter and spirit with among penalty.
  • Government programs like housing for all 2022.Atal Mission for rejuvenation and urban transformation should pick up speed.
  • An integrated chain of unique Identification Authority should be there so that temporary residential Identity card should be issued and monitored.
  • Regular Inspections of various Industries and firms must be ensured to check whether any exploitation is being done or not.
  • Opportunities should be built in the rural areas only so that migration will not happen on the first place by developing tourism, rural hats.
  • Private players should cooperate with Government in dissemination of essential services by using experience and expertise of Government and infrastructures of private sector for inclusiveness.

Migration in India is accelerating with World Bank estimates that by 2030 more than 40% of Indian population will live in cities.

Therefore Government authorities should pull up sock backed by the active participation of NGO’s like Aajeevika Bureau, Hunnarshala Foundation, and civil societies.

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