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In this article, we will 3 main languages that uses JVM(Java virtual machine). JVM is an engine that provides runtime environment to drive the Java Code or applications. It converts Java bytecode into machines language. These 3 languages are Java, Kotlin and Scala. Now, in Github programming language survey, all of these programming languages are included in top 20.
Java programming language
Java is one of leading programming languages used in software industry. Github programming language survey rank Java as #2 programming language, only after Python.
Java has found use in multiple applications like Web application, Machine Learning, Mobile application, Enterprise software and many more.
Find complete list of Java application here: https://www.xamnation.com/why-java-will-remain-a-dominant-language-of-the-future/
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Top Companies using Java
Kotlin programming language
Kotlin is an object oriented programming language, developed by JetBrains in 2010. This open source language connects object-oriented programming features like Extension Function, Range Expressions, Smart Casts, and Companion Object, etc. Kotlin grew in popularity when Android Studio, which is official IDE for Android development, allowed app development in both Java and Kotlin. This language grew in popularity on Android due to its perfect compatibility with Java 6, which is the present version of Java on Android. It main features include seamless interoperability with Java, like calling Java code. Due to features like in-built null safety features, it has become a popular programming language for app development.
Kotlin is #12 popular programming language according to Github programming index
Companies using Kotlin programming language
Companies using Kotlin include Gradle, Uber, Atlassian, Evernote, Corda, Pinterest, Coursera and Pivotal, etc.
Source: Google Android
Popular Kotlin frameworks
There are lots of Kotlin frameworks which are helping in its popularity. Popular among those are Spek, Kanary, Klaxon, Query, Kotlin NoSQL, Kotlin-Core.
Pros and Cons of Using Kotlin
|Write expressible, concise, and efficient code||Extra Runtime Size|
|It provides all the features of the functional and object-oriented paradigm||Initial Readability of Code|
|Java and Kotlin codes are inter-convertible, which makes this language succeed Java efficiently||Lack of proper function types (SAM Conversions), raw types and invariant array|
|Kotlin code looks similar to Java and behaves like C/C++, which makes it endure all the features of object-oriented||It does not support pattern matching|
Scala programming language
Scala comes from Scalable, which mean this programming language is designed for large scale infrastructure for functional programming.
Scala programming language has some common features with the Kotlin like higher-order functions, conciseness of code, FP functionality with an OOP style, and it offer interoperability with Java programming language. In term of Google searches, Scala and Kotlin are almost comparable.
Source- Google Trends. Scala in Red and Kotlin in Blue.
Scala is #16 popular programming language according to Github programming index
Pros and Cons of Using Scala
|Full Support for Macros, Pattern Matching, and Higher-Kindred Types||Less Efficient in the Management of Null Safety|
|Operator Overloading||Slow Compilation|
|Write Once, Run Everywhere||Challenges in binary compilation|
|Bigger Community Support|
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Applications of Scala programming langauge
Top companies using Scala
- The Guardian
Scala is used by popular frameworks like Spark, Akka and Play. Scala is being used in Big Data and mobile app development.
Scala programming language for Big Data
Apache Spark is written using Scala, and Scala programming gives additional benefits in performance in Big Data. Scala programming language work smoothly with Hadoop which is Java based.
Top Machine Learning libraries of Scala
- Summing Bird
Java vs Kotlin vs Scala – What should you choose
When choosing a programming language, number of opportunities and payment scale should be a major criteria for any candidate.
Java jobs vs Scala Jobs vs Kotlin Jobs
There is vast difference in number of jobs being offered for Java programing, Scala programming and Kotlin programming.
Source: Data taken from respective websites as on Jan 2020
As you can see, Java programming language still leads in number of jobs by 10:1 with Scala and 40:1 with respect to Kotlin.
Java salary vs Scala salary vs Kotlin salary
|Programing language||Salary range of developer|
|Java||$92,000 – $105,00|
|Scala||$94,000 – $120,000|
|Kotlin||$95,000 – $110,000|
Java searches vs Kotlin searches vs Scala searches
Google Trends suggest a massive gap in searches between Java and other 2 programming languages.
Source- Google Trends
As we can conclude from article, Java is still very popular programming language, offering largest number of jobs among 3 programming languages. Its rank on Github programming language index also highlights its importance. Scala and Kotlin are relatively new languages and are still evolving. With code interoperability they do offer mix of benefits with Java, and do have good future in coming time.
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