Exam preparation strategies for RBI, Nabard , UPSC, IRDA

GATE ECE Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is a kind of examination that basically tests the thorough understanding and the caliber of students of various subjects that are taught to undergraduates in engineering. GATE is conducted jointly by the Indian Institute of Science and seven Indian Institutes of Technologies on behalf of the National Coordination Board – GATE, Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resources Development , Government of India. ECE is the only branch which has an important role in all PSU, DRDO, ISRO etc. hence appearing for GATE would provide students with good opportunities.

Eligibility for GATE ECE Exam

  • If the candidate is pursuing any higher degree or already obtained a degree higher than that mentioned in the above table, then the candidate can select the minimum required qualifying examinations, then the candidate can select the minimum required qualifying degree while filing GATE application form.
  • In case, a candidate has completed one of the qualifying examinations then they have to submit the degree certificate / provisional certificate/ course completion certificate issued by the institute.
  • There is No Age limit.

Cut-Off for GATE Electronics and communication engineering Exam

The cut off marks varies every year but not by a big margin. Here is the cut off of previous years by which the changes expected in the next exam can be analysed.

Year General OBC SC/ST/PH
2017 25.20 25.50 16.60
2016 25 22.5 16.6
2015 25 22.5 16.67


Networks, Signals and Systems:

Network solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis; Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s, maximum power transfer; Wye?Delta transformation; Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors; Time domain analysis of simple linear circuits; Solution of network equations using Laplace transform; Frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits; Linear 2?port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions; State equations for networks.

Continuous-time signals: Fourier series and Fourier transform representations, sampling theorem and applications; Discrete-time signals: discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT), DFT, FFT, Z-transform, interpolation of discrete-time signals; LTI systems: definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay, digital filter design techniques.

Electronic Devices:

Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic silicon; Carrier transport: diffusion current, drift
current, mobility and resistivity; Generation and recombination of carriers; Poisson and continuity equations; P-N junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, photo diode and solar cell; Integrated circuit fabrication process: oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography and twin-tub CMOS process.

Analog Circuits:

Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs and MOSFETs; Simple diode circuits: clipping, clamping and rectifiers; Single-stage BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: biasing, bias stability, mid-frequency small signal analysis and frequency response; BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: multi-stage, differential, feedback, power and operational; Simple op-amp circuits; Active filters; Sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation, single-transistor and opamp configurations; Function generators, wave-shaping circuits and 555 timers; Voltage reference circuits; Power supplies: ripple removal and regulation.

Digital circuits:

Number systems; Combinatorial circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders and PLAs; Sequential circuits: latches and flip? Flops, counters, shift? Registers and finite state machines; Data converters: sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs; Semiconductor memories: ROM, SRAM, DRAM; 8-bit microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.

Control Systems:

Basic control system components; Feedback principle; Transfer function; Block diagram representation; Signal flow graph; Transient and steady-state analysis of LTI systems; Frequency response; Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria; Bode and root-locus plots; Lag, lead and lag-lead compensation; State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems.


Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems; Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers, circuits for analog communications; Information theory: entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem; Digital communications: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying
(ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding, matched filter receiver, calculation of bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation; Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes; Timing and frequency synchronization, inter-symbol interference and its mitigation; Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA.


Electrostatics; Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation,
boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector; Plane waves and properties: reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth; Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart;
Waveguides: modes, boundary conditions, cut-off frequencies, dispersion relations; Antennas: antenna types, radiation pattern, gain and directivity, return loss, antenna arrays; Basics of radar; Light propagation in optical fibres.

General Aptitude

Verbal Ability and Numerical Ability

GATE ECE Preparation Tips

gate tipsCracking GATE examination requires proper strategy, determination and focus. It requires constant efforts towards the subject in clearing up the basic concepts to obtain good marks. Just mugging up the concepts will not help you score well, rather you must focus more on the understanding part with practical approach of the subject. Strategic preparation, time management, smart study are a few key points. The tips are elaborated below that would help the aspirants to crack the examination.

1. To start with, candidates must be aware of the GATE exam pattern for EC engineering completely

  • It consists of 65 questions out of which 35 questions are of 2 marks and 30 questions are of 1 mark with a total of 100 marks. Candidates must know that there are only two types of questions, multiple choice questions and numerical answer type.
  • They should be aware that there will be 2/3rd negative marking in 2 markers and 1/3rd negative marking in 1 markers whereas there is no negative marking in Numerical answer type questions hence only they can get the maximum numbers in the test.

2. Know the syllabus of EC engineering and the weight-age

  • It is suggested that the candidate goes through the complete syllabusbefore starting the preparation. Match your knowledge with the exam syllabus and plan your preparation with known subjects.
  • Highlight the important topics in the syllabus based upon the previous year papers and focus more on these topics during the course of your preparation. 

3. Choose good books & study materials related to EC engineering for the preparation

  • Selection of appropriate and concise study material is very important before starting the preparation.
  • Read at one book apart from the study material which is provided by your institution and your class notes.
  • Nowadays the whole package is available online in the form of video lectures, course materials PDF, so you can pursue best study material.

4. Study smartly during the preparation

  • Analyse important topics and pattern of questions from the previous year papers which have been provided with for reference.
  • Prepare each topic in three steps. Understand the concept, practice related questions and revise regularly. This will help you to analyse your preparation and also boost your confidence.
  • Most of the questions are conceptual & numerical, so you must try to improve your solving ability and time management to score a good rank.

5. Prepare the study plan to complete the syllabus

  • The first step in the preparation is to start with easy subject and important one that has been mentioned below. Segregate whole subject into smaller topics and prepare topic wise
  • After completing the subject, make short notes for that subject which should include definitions, important formulas etc. This will help during the time of revision.
  • Clearing all the doubts during the preparation is essential.
  • Identify weak areas while practising tests and try to revise and practice those topics.

6. Proper revision plan

  • It is not just sufficient enough to prepare revision notes, but also to revise them regularly.
  • Read the revision notes on a weekly basis to recall the concepts of prepared subjects.
  • Each time you revise the same topic/ subject, your revision time will reduce to recall the concepts.

7. Mock tests and practice papers

  • Mock tests play an important role.
  • Firstly, it gives you an exam like interface. This is very important for any aspirant, to have idea and thorough practice on exam like interface.
  • They provide All India ranking, so you know where you stand.
  • Test analysis about how you performed in exam and how toppers have performed, which helps you to analyse and understand how much more preparation is required and on which area.
  • You also get to keep a check on which question was easy and you couldn’t attempt, but attempted a tough question which was expected to be left. And how much extra time have you given to that particular question.
  • Comprehensive explanation to every single question coupled with smart tricks/intuitive approach in the form of text, Images or both.
  • From mock tests, you get to know your strength and weaknesses in a well-defined manner.
  • Tests in general are important. They help not only in the assessment of your preparation for exams, but also regular test attempts help you memorize better.


Here is a list of some good authors whose books are important for the topics which will provide you with a better knowledge and understanding of the topic

S.No Topics Books of Authors
1. Network Theory
(i) Networks and Systems
(ii) Engineering Circuit Analysis
D. Roy Chaudhary
2. Electronic Devices and Circuits & Analog Electronics–
(i) Integrated electronics : Analog and Digital Circuit and system
(ii) Microelectronic Circuits
(iii) Electronic Devices and Circuits
(iv) OP Amp and linear Integrated Circuit
(v) Solid State electronic devices(vi) Semiconductor devices
Jacob Millman & Halkias

Sedra & Smith
J.B. Gupta
Ramakant A.Gayakwad

Streetman and Banerjee

3. Digital Electronics
(i) Digital Design
(ii) Digital Systems
(iii) Modern Digital Electronics
M. Morris Mano
Tocci & Widmer
R. P. Jain
4. Control System
(i) Control System Engg.
(ii) Automatic Control System
(iii) Linear Control System
I.G. Nagrath & M.Gopal B.C. Kuo
B.S. Manke
5. Communication System 
(i) Communication System
(ii) An introduction to Analog and Digital Communication
(iii) Communication System : Analog and Digital
(iv) Modern Digital and Analog Communication System
(v) Electronic Communication System
Simon Haykins

Singh and sapre

B.P Lathi

Kennedyand Davis


6. Electro Magnetic Theory
(i)Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics
(ii) Elements of Electromagnetics
(iii) Engineering Electromagnetics
(iv) Antenna and Wave Propagation
N. N. Rao

K.D. Prasad

7. Microwave Engineering
((i) Microwave Devices and Circuits
(ii) Microwave Engineering
(iii) Microwave Engineering
Sanjeev Gupta
8. Measurement and Instrumentation
(i) Electrical & Electronic Measurement and Instrumentation
(ii) Electronic Instrumentation
A. K. Sahney

H. S. Kalsi


GATE Electronics and Communication Engineering Exam 2012

GATE Electronics and Communication Engineering Exam 2013

GATE Electronics and Communication Engineering Exam 2014

GATE Electronics and Communication Engineering Exam 2015

GATE Electronics and Communication Engineering Exam 2017


For recorded material, Visit online study material and test series for RBI Grade B page


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