Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is a kind of examination that basically tests the thorough understanding and the caliber of students of various subjects that are taught to undergraduates in engineering. GATE is conducted jointly by the Indian Institute of Science and seven Indian Institutes of Technologies on behalf of the National Coordination Board – GATE, Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resources Development , Government of India.
Civil Engineering is one out of 23 papers in Gate exam. Aspirants with Civil Engineering background can opt for this paper during the Gate exam application procedure. But they should know the eligibility criteria.
Eligibility for GATE Civil Engineering Exam
- Qualifying Degree of the applicant – B.Tech
- Applicant Type– An applicant who has completed B.E or B. Tech in Engineering and those who are in the final year of such programs with no backlog are eligible to apply for this exam.
- There is No Age limit.
Cut-Off for GATE Civil Engineering Exam
SYLLABUS FOR GATE CIVIL ENGINEERING EXAM
|Section 1: Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra; Systems of linear equations; Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus: Functions of single variable; Limit, continuity and differentiability; Mean value theorems, local maxima and minima, Taylor and Maclaurin series; Evaluation of definite and indefinite integrals, application of definite integral to obtain area and volume; Partial derivatives; Total derivative; Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE): First order (linear and non-linear) equations; higher order linear equations with constant coefficients; Euler-Cauchy equations; Laplace transform and its application in solving linear ODEs; initial and boundary value problems.
Partial Differential Equation (PDE): Fourier series; separation of variables; solutions of one- dimensional diffusion equation; first and second order one-dimensional wave equation and two-dimensional Laplace equation.
Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems; Conditional probability; Discrete Random variables: Poisson and Binomial distributions; Continuous random variables: normal and exponential distributions; Descriptive statistics – Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Hypothesis testing.
Numerical Methods: Accuracy and precision; error analysis. Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; Least square approximation, Newton’s and Lagrange polynomials, numerical differentiation, Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multi-step methods for first order differential equations.
|Section 2: Structural Engineering
Engineering Mechanics: System of forces, free-body diagrams, equilibrium equations; Internal forces in structures; Friction and its applications; Kinematics of point mass and rigid body; Centre of mass; Euler’s equations of motion; Impulse-momentum; Energy methods; Principles of virtual work.
Solid Mechanics: Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams; Simple stress and strain relationships; Theories of failures; Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, shear centre; Uniform torsion, buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses.
Structural Analysis: Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods; Method of superposition; Analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames; Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence lines; Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis.
Construction Materials and Management: Construction Materials: Structural steel – composition, material properties and behaviour; Concrete – constituents, mix design, short-term and long-term properties; Bricks and mortar; Timber; Bitumen. Construction Management; Types of construction projects; Tendering and construction contracts; Rate analysis and standard specifications; Cost estimation; Project planning and network analysis – PERT and CPM.
Concrete Structures: Working stress, Limit state and ultimate load design concepts; Design of beams, slabs, columns; Bond and development length; Pre-stressed concrete; Analysis of beam sections at transfer and service loads.
Steel Structures: Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of tension and compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases; Connections – simple and eccentric, beam-column connections, plate girders and trusses; Plastic analysis of beams and frames.
|Section 3: Geotechnical Engineering
Soil Mechanics: Origin of soils, soil structure and fabric; Three-phase system and phase relationships, index properties; Unified and Indian standard soil classification system; Permeability – one dimensional flow, Darcy’s law; Seepage through soils – two-dimensional flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping; Principle of effective stress, capillarity, seepage force and quicksand condition; Compaction in laboratory and field conditions; One-dimensional consolidation, time rate of consolidation; Mohr’s circle, stress paths, effective and total shear strength parameters, characteristics of clays and sand.
Foundation Engineering: Sub-surface investigations – scope, drilling bore holes, sampling, plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theories – Rankine and Coulomb; Stability of slopes – finite and infinite slopes, method of slices and Bishop’s method; Stress distribution in soils – Boussinesq’s and Westergaard’s theories, pressure bulbs; Shallow foundations – Terzaghi’s and Meyerhoff’s bearing capacity theories, effect of water table; Combined footing and raft foundation; Contact pressure; Settlement analysis in sands and clays; Deep foundations – types of piles, dynamic and static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, negative skin friction.
|Section 4: Water Resources Engineering
Fluid Mechanics: Properties of fluids, fluid statics; Continuity, momentum, energy and corresponding equations; Potential flow, applications of momentum and energy equations; Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow in pipes, pipe networks; Concept of boundary layer and its growth.
Hydraulics: Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes; Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles; Basics of hydraulic machines, specific speed of pumps and turbines; Channel Hydraulics – Energy-depth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, slope profile, hydraulic jump, uniform flow and gradually varied flow
Hydrology: Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, watershed, infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, flood estimation and routing, reservoir capacity, reservoir and channel routing, surface run-off models, ground water hydrology – steady state well hydraulics and aquifers; Application of Darcy’s law.
Irrigation: Duty, delta, estimation of evapo-transpiration; Crop water requirements; Design of lined and unlined canals, head works, gravity dams and spillways; Design of weirs on permeable foundation; Types of irrigation systems, irrigation methods; Water logging and drainage; Canal regulatory works, cross-drainage structures, outlets and escapes.
|Section 5: Environmental Engineering
Water and Waste Water: Quality standards, basic unit processes and operations for water treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements, basic unit operations and unit processes for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater, effluent discharge standards. Domestic wastewater treatment, quantity of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment. Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater, sludge disposal.
Air Pollution: Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology, air pollution control, air quality standards and limits.
Municipal Solid Wastes: Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle energy recovery, treatment and disposal).
Noise Pollution: Impacts of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution, measurement of noise and control of noise pollution.
|Section 6: Transportation Engineering
Transportation Infrastructure: Highway alignment and engineering surveys; Geometric design of highways – cross-sectional elements, sight distances, horizontal and vertical alignments; Geometric design of railway track; Airport runway length, taxiway and exit taxiway design.
Highway Pavements: Highway materials – desirable properties and quality control tests; Design of bituminous paving mixes; Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements; Design of flexible pavement using IRC: 37-2012; Design of rigid pavements using IRC: 58-2011; Distresses in concrete pavements.
Traffic Engineering: Traffic studies on flow, speed, travel time – delay and O-D study, PCU, peak hour factor, parking study, accident study and analysis, statistical analysis of traffic data; Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow, fundamental relationships; Control devices, signal design by Webster’s method; Types of intersections and channelization; Highway capacity and level of service of rural highways and urban roads.
|Section 7: Geomatics Engineering
Principles of surveying; Errors and their adjustment; Maps – scale, coordinate system;
Distance and angle measurement – Levelling and trigonometric levelling; Traversing and triangulation survey; Total station; Horizontal and vertical curves. Photogrammetry – scale, flying height; Remote sensing – basics, platform and sensors, visual image interpretation; Basics of Geographical information system (GIS) and Geographical Positioning system (GPS).
Civil Engineering Exam Pattern for GATE 2018
|Engineering Mathematics||Engineering Mathematics will have 13% of total marks weightage|
|General Aptitude||General Aptitude will have 15% of total marks weightage|
|Subject questions||Subject questions will have rest 72% of total marks weightage|
General Aptitude (GA): 10 questions of 15 Marks
Engineering Mathematics: 15 Marks
Technical Questions (subject of the paper): 70 Marks
Types of Questions in GATE Civil Engineering 2018
- Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ): These questions will have 4 choices and would comprise of 1 or 2 marks. The Candidate has to choose one answer that is correct and mark it.
- Numerical Answer Questions: For these Questions, the answer is a real number which is to be entered by the candidate using a virtual keypad. No choices will be shown for this answer. It will comprise of 1 or 2 marks.
GATE CIVIL ENGINEERING PREPARATION TIPS
1. To start with, candidates must be aware of the GATE exam pattern for civil engineering completely
- It consists of 65 questions out of which 35 questions are of 2 marks and 30 questions are of 1 mark with a total of 100 marks. Candidates must know that there are only two types of questions, multiple choice questions and numerical answer type.
- They should be aware that there will be 2/3rd negative marking in 2 markers and 1/3rd negative marking in 1 markers whereas there is no negative marking in Numerical answer type questions hence only they can get the maximum numbers in the test.
2. Know the syllabus of Civil engineering and the weightage
- It is suggested that the candidate goes through the complete syllabusbefore starting the preparation. Match your knowledge with the exam syllabus and plan your preparation with known subjects.
- Highlight the important topics in the syllabus based upon the previous year papers and focus more on these topics during the course of your preparation.
3. Choose good books & study materials related to Civil engineering for the preparation
- Selection of appropriate and concise study material is very important before starting the preparation.
- Read at one book apart from the study material which is provided by your institution and your class notes.
- Nowadays the whole package is available online in the form of video lectures, course materials PDF, so you can pursue best study material.
4. Study smartly during the preparation
- Analyse important topics and pattern of questions from the previous year papers which have been provided with for reference.
- Prepare each topic in three steps. Understand the concept, practice related questions and revise regularly. This will help you to analyse your preparation and also boost your confidence.
- Most of the questions are conceptual & numerical, so you must try to improve your solving ability and time management to score a good rank.
5. Prepare the study plan to complete the syllabus
- The first step in the preparation is to start with easy subject and important one that has been mentioned below. Segregate whole subject into smaller topics and prepare topic wise
- After completing the subject, make short notes for that subject which should include definitions, important formulas etc. This will help during the time of revision.
- Clearing all the doubts during the preparation is essential.
- Identify weak areas while practising tests and try to revise and practice those topics.
6. Proper revision plan
- It is not just sufficient enough to prepare revision notes, but also to revise them regularly.
- Read the revision notes on a weekly basis to recall the concepts of prepared subjects.
- Each time you revise the same topic/ subject, your revision time will reduce to recall the concepts.
7. Mock tests and practice papers
- Mock tests play an important role.
- Firstly, it gives you an exam like interface. This is very important for any aspirant, to have idea and thorough practice on exam like interface.
- They provide All India ranking, so you know where you stand.
- Test analysis about how you performed in exam and how toppers have performed, which helps you to analyse and understand how much more preparation is required and on which area.
- You also get to keep a check on which question was easy and you couldn’t attempt, but attempted a tough question which was expected to be left. And how much extra time have you given to that particular question.
- Comprehensive explanation to every single question coupled with smart tricks/intuitive approach in the form of text, Images or both.
- From mock tests, you get to know your strength and weaknesses in a well-defined manner.
- Tests in general are important. They help not only in the assessment of your preparation for exams, but also regular test attempts help you memorize better.
Important Topics and Books for GATE Civil Engineering
|1.||Engineering Mathematics||Linear Algebra
Probability and Statistics
|Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications by Kenneth Rosen
Higher Engineering mathematics by B.S. Grewal
Advanced Engineering Mathematics by Erwin
|2.||Structural Engineering||Statically Determinate and Indeterminate Structures by Force/Energy Methods
Method of Superposition
Analysis of Trusses
Structural Analysis with all its Methods
|Theory of Structure by CK Wang, S. Rammamrutham, L.S. Negi & Jangit
Theory of Elasticity by Timoshenko & Gere
Theory of Structure by Wilbur & Norris
Strength of Materials/Mechanics of Structure by Gare & Timoshenko,
E. Popove, L. Singer,
B.C. Punamia, Rammamrutham
|3.||Geotechnical Engineering||Basic Properties and Classification of Soils
|Soil Mechanics by Gopal Ranjan & Rao,Venkat Ramaiha,S. K. Garg,
B.C. Punamia, V N S Murthy
|4.||Water Resources Engineering||Fluid Statics
Laminar – Turbulent Flow
Flow Through Pipes
Open Channel Flow Hydraulics
Ground Water Hydrology
|Water Resources by S K Garg
Water and Waste Water by SK Garg 1 and 2
Fluid Mechanics- RK Bansal and Fox and Richard
|5.||Transportation Engineering||Highway Engineering
Geometric Design of Railway Track
|Transportation by Justo Khanna|
|6.||Environmental engineering||Quality Standards
Domestic Wastewater Treatment
Water and Waste Water Disposal
Municipal Solid Waste
Quality and Characteristics of Sewage
|Environmental Engineering by S. K. Garg Part I & Part II
Waste Water Engineering by B. C. Punamia Part I & Part II
|7.||Geomatics Engineering||Basics of Geographical Information System (GIS)
Geographical Positioning System (GPS)
|Surveying (vol. 1,2,3) by B.C.Punia, Ashok Jain, Arun Jain|
PAST YEAR PAPERS
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